Nankana Sahib is the Birth Place of Sri Guru Nanak Dev ji (first Guru of Sikhs)
Nankana Sahib is a holy place where the founder of Sikh religion, Guru Nanak Dev ji was born early in the morning to Mata Tripta Ji and Mehta Kalu Ji on 15th April, 1469 (Baisakh sudi 3, Samwat 1526).
Bhai Gurdas in his Var (Var 1/27) has equated this event with – the sun that lights up the earth after a dark night :
Jeeu Kar suraj nikaleya, taare chhipe andher paloa. (Var 1/27)
According to Janam Sakhis, when Daulta Dai, the maid nurse was offered money, she refused it on the plea that she had already been rewarded by the very glimpse of the holy baby. Guru Nanak gave his first message that he belong to God and would exert the people to worship His Name.
Bhai Nand lal ji has well said that Guru Nanak was asked by the Almighty to turn the face of humanity towards Him.
The township of Nankana Sahib was earlier known as Raipur and later on as Rai-Bhoi-di-Talwandi but after the birth of Guru Nanak, it began to be known as Nankian Sahib/Nankana Sahib. It is situated at a distance 48 miles on the west from Lahore.
Guru Nanak dev ji passed his whole childhood and young age in Nankana Sahib. At the age of nine, when Pandit Hardyal asked the boy Nanak to put on Janeo, he refused to have the thread that discriminated amongst mankind. The Janeo which was made of the silk for a brahmin, of cotton for a khatri, of wool for a Vaish and which was strictly abondoned for Shudara. And again which is three folds for brahmin, two folds for Khatri and only one fold for Vaish. He asked the Pandit if he had the thread made of compassion the cotton, contentment the yarn, continence the knot and purity the twist, he was ready to wear it. The Pandit was dumb-founded :
Daeya kapah santokh soot jatu gandhi sat watt.
Eihu janeo jeea ka hai ta pande ghatt. (p. 471)
When he joined a school at Nankana Sahib, the Guru is said to have written fundamentals of education on the wooden takhti provided to him. He enlightened the people when he wrote simply the first alphabet of Persian script ‘alaf’ and conveyed the message of unity of Godhood.
Guru Nanak Dev got married on 21st , may 1487 to Bibi Sulakhani, Daghter of Mulchand Khatri of Batala. It was at Nankana Sahib that he met Bhai Mardana, who was his life long companion for 47 years, listening and singing Guru’s gospel. According to the Sikh history, Guru Nanak at the age of 22 years, in 1491 A.D. went into silence for days together. He did not eat a single morsel and utter a single word.
His father Kalu ji sent for a local physician / Vaid. The vaid found nothing wrong with the young Nanak and found himself in a quandary as to what to tell his father because Nanak was absolutely healthy. Guru Nanak said ,” I have no physical ailment. Thou, the simple physician, knows not the pangs arising from the heart”
Bhola vaid na jaaneie karak Kaleje maah. (P. 1279)
Guru Nanak Dev Ji stayed at his birthplace till 35 years of age and hereafter went to Sultanpur.
For a long time, this place remained in normal form. In A.D. 1613 (Samwat 1670), Guru Hargobind visited the birth place of Guru Nanak and entrusted the responsibility of looking after this place to Alamst, an ardent disciple of Baba Sri Chand. Since then Udasis, (the followers of Guru Nanak’s Son) looked after this place for a long time.
Maharaja Ranjit Singh got a magnificent building built there and at the behest of Baba Sahib Singh, the Maharaja gave 700 acres land as religious endowment to his holy shrine but the Udasis continued to maintain the place. They had the charge of this place during the times full of stress and strife for the Sikhs. But with the passage of time, in early 20th century, these Udasis Mahants began to treat this revenue free jagir as their personal property and indulged in erotic and luxurious life.
To get these historical Gurdwaras from the hands of these apostates the Gurdwara Prabandh Sudhar Movement was started. One peaceful Jatha that entered Gurdwara Janam Asthan was mercilessly hacked by the mercenaries of Mahant Narain Dass. Even the holy Sri Guru Granth Sahib was made target of their bullets. Many a people belonging to this jatha were tied to a Jand and burnt alive. The Martyred half-burnt bodies were thrown into the well.
This incident gave such an impetus to the Gurdwara Reform Movement that the Mahants had to handover the shrines to the Sikh Sangats. The magnificent building of this Gurdwara along with the beautiful gardens, enthralls the onlookers and devotees. There is a big sarovar and a spacious inn which provides accommodation to the pilgrims. The historical Jand and the well are still existing, telling the tale of atrocities perpetuated by Mahant Narain Dass on simple-hearted and peace-loving Sikhs.
According to Bhai Kahn Singh Nabha, the author of Gurshabd Ratnakar Mahan Kosh, this shrine had 18 thousand acres of land attached to it and a cash endowment of Rs. nine thousand eight hundred and ninety two.
By the partition of the Indian sub-continent, the Sikhs not only lost many lives, wealth etc. but also their most loved and revered shrines which went to the other side of the border. After this partition, a mention of Nankana Sahib Gurdwara in the daily ardas or prayer has become a regular feature. These Sikh shrines in Pakistan are managed by a Waqf Board and every year, Sikh Jathas visit these shrines on four different occasions.
At present there are 25-30 Sikh families residing in Nankana Sahib and as a result of this, daily service is performed and bani is recited. Bhai Partap Singh is functioning as the Granthi. At the occasion of Guru Nanak’s anniversary, about three thousand Sikh devotees from India visit Nankana Sahib. Sikhs from all over the world visit there too.