Guru Gobind Singh (About this sound pronunciation (help·info); born Gobind Rai;22 December 1666 – 7 October 1708) was a spiritual master, warrior, poet and philosopher. He was the last of the 10 Sikh Gurus and succeeded his father Guru Tegh Bahadur as the leader of the Sikhs at the young age of nine. Among his notable contributions to Sikhism are the Five Ks, the five articles of faith that Khalsa Sikhs wear at all times, initiating the Sikh Khalsa in 1699, and his contribution to the continual formalisation of the religion which the first Guru Guru Nanak had founded in the 15th century. He was the last of the living Sikh Gurus, passing the Guruship of the Sikhs to the Eleventh and Eternal Sikh Guru, the Guru Granth Sahib Ji.
Gobind Singh was born to Guru Tegh Bahadur, the ninth Sikh guru, and Mata Gujri in Patna. He was born while his father was on a preaching tour in Assam. As a child, he learnt Persian, Sanskrit and martial skills to become a warrior.
In 1699, the Guru sent hukmanamas (letters of authority) to his followers, requesting them to congregate at Anandpur on 13 April 1699, the day of Vaisakhi (the annual harvest festival). He addressed the congregation from the entryway of a small tent pitched on a small hill (now called Kesgarh Sahib). He first asked everyone who he was for them? Everyone answered – “You are our Guru.” He then asked them who were they, to which everyone replied – “We are your Sikhs.” Having reminded them of this relationship, He then said that today the Guru needs something from his Sikhs.